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Types of Additives, Groups and Understanding

Types of Additives, Groups and Understanding

Greetings all friends of education wherever located, here we will discuss about additive substances, types, groups and understanding as the theme listed above, and the following reviews for you:

Additives. Do we know what the additive is? Additives are ingredients added intentionally into small amounts of food or beverage products during the feeding process. Addition of additives aims to improve the appearance, taste, texture, aroma, and to extend the shelf life. In addition, the addition of additives can also increase the nutritional value of foods and beverages such as the addition of proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Based on its function, additive substances in foods and beverages can be grouped into dyes, sweeteners, preservatives, flavorings, aroma, thickeners, and emulsifiers. Based on the origin, food additives can be grouped into two, namely natural and artificial additives. Natural additives are additives whose raw materials come from living things, such as dyes from plants, flavorings from animal flesh, algae thickener, and so on. Natural additives have no side effects or are harmful to humans whereas artificial additives can be dangerous if excessive in the process of using them.

Types of Additives, Groups and Understanding
Types of Additives, Groups and Understanding

The artificial additive is obtained by the chemical reaction process which the raw material of manufacture is derived from the chemicals. For example, preservatives of benzoate acids, artificial sweeteners of saccharin, dyes of tartrazine, and others. The use of artificial additives shall be of allowed quantity and in accordance with its function. Abuse of artificial dyes such as textile dyes used as food pearna is very danger to health.

1. Dyes

Dyes are ingredients added to food or beverages in order to improve or color the food or drink to be attractive. Naturally the green color can be obtained from suji and pandan or red from the strawberries.

At this time people can use artificial coloring that is easily purchased on the market. Natural dyes are generally safe for health, while artificial coloring materials that are misused can be harmful to health.

a. Natural Dyes

Natural dyes are dyes that can be obtained from nature, for example from plants and animals, such as suji leaves and pandan leaves as a giver color hijua on food. Apart from the green member, pandan leaves also give a fragrant aroma to the food. Suji and pandanus leaf, strawberry and red dragon fruit are also often used to give red color to the food.

The superiority of natural dyes is healthier and has no side effects if consumed compared to artificial coloring. However, natural food pearna has several disadvantages ie tend to give a flavor and a distinctive aroma that is not desirable, the color easily damaged by warming, the color is less strong (pale) and the type is limited.

b. Artificial Dyes

Artificial dyes are obtained through a chemical reaction (synthesis) process using materials derived from synthetic chemicals. Dyes generally have similar chemical structures such as chemical structures of natural dyes, such as apocaroten which have an orange color similar to carrot color. Some synthetic pearna materials can replace natural dyes. Synthetic dyes are made specifically for food and there is also for textile and paint industry.

The following are artificial coloring materials that can be used and which can not be used in food or drink: Table

2. Sweetener

Sweeteners are ingredients added to foods or beverages that can produce a sweet taste in foods and beverages. Sweeteners there are two types of natural and artificial sweeteners.

a. Natural sweetener

Natural sweeteners used to make a sweet taste in food and drink are sugar (surkosa), palm sugar, palm sugar, palm sugar, and beet sugar. The use of natural sweeteners also need to follow a certain dose.

b. Artificial sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners have a sweet taste almost the same or sweeter than a natural sweetener. Artificial sweeteners are made through certain chemical reactions that can produce compounds that have a sweet taste. Botanical sweeteners made premises in place of natural sugar. Some examples of artificial sweeteners are cyclamate, aspartame, potassium asesulfam, and saccharin. These sweeteners have a greater degree of sweetness than sugar. Artificial sweeteners can be used instead of natural sweeteners for people who are not allowed to use natural sweeteners, such as diabetes (diabetes mellitus). In addition, artificial sweeteners do not produce calories in the body, so by oran gyan do diet.

The use of excessive botanical sweeteners and not in accordance with the amount or amount allowed may endanger health. Therefore, when using artificial sweeteners check the rules of life.

3. Preservatives

Preservatives are additives added to foods or beverages that serve to inhibit damage to a particular food or beverage. Food damage can be caused by microorganisms that grow in food and drink. Preservatives preventing the growth of microorganisms so that chemical reactions caused by these microorganisms can be prevented, such as food or beverage permentation. Other chemical reactions can also be prevented in the presence of preservatives such as pengaswaman, oxidation, browning, and other enzymatic reactions.

Another way of preserving the meal is by salting or sweetening. For example salted fish, candied fruit, or grilled meat can be durable naturally. Other preservation methods are by physical means for example by heating, cooling, freezing, fogging, drying, and irradiation.

4. Flavoring

Flavoring is a food additive that is intended to enhance the taste of food or food. The natural ingredients commonly used are salt, onion, garlic, cloves, nutmeg, pepper, chili, laos, turmeric, coriander, lemongrass, and cinnamon. In food berkuah broth of meat and bone is generally used as a flavoring.

In addition to natural flavoring, there are also artificial flavorings. The most common artificial flavorings used in foods are those containing monosodium glutamate (MSG) or mononatrium glutamate (MNG) compounds. This compound is made from Fermentation molasses with the help of Micrococcous Glutamic bacteria. Many health experts believe that excessive use of MSG can lead to a disease known as Chinese Rastoran Syndrome with symptoms of dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, nausea, or shortness of breath. The dosage of MSG usage established by WHO is 120 mg / kg body weight. For example your weight is 40 kg then the maximum amount of MSG that can be consumed is 480 mg (0.48 g).

5. Giver of aroma

A fragrance is a substance that can give a certain aroma to food or drink. The addition of an aroma agent can cause food or drink to have its own charm to enjoy. The fragrance agent can be derived from fresh ingredients or extracts from natural abhan, including pineapple, grape, essential oil, and vanilla extracts. Some cakes use mulberry as a scent maker.

Giver of aroma which is a synthetic compound or called essen, for example amyl caproate (apple aroma), amyl acetate (ammonia banana aroma), ethyl butirat (pineapple), vanillin (vanilla), and antranilic metal (grape aroma) a synthetic fragrance.

6. Thickener

Thickeners are additives used to stabilize, concentrate or thicken the food mixed with water, thereby forming a certain viscosity. Natural thickeners such as starch, gelatin, gum, gelatin, and alginate.

7. Emulsifiers

Emulsifiers are additives that can maintain the dispersion of fat in water and vice versa. Oil and water do not mix with each other, but when soap is added, then stirred, both can be mixed. Soap is an example referred to as emulsifying agent. Examples of food emulsifying agents are lecithin contained in egg yolks and in soybeans. Lecithin is widely used in the manufacture of meyones and butter. If no emulsifiers are added, the fat and water on the mayonnaise and butter will be separated.

Thus the above explanation may be useful and beneficial for your time.